Connect charging behavior to fundamentals in Battery Health
Battery users often ask: “Why does an old Li-ion lake so long to charge?” Indeed, when Li-ion gets older, the battery takes its time to charge even if there is little to fill. We call this the “old-man syndrome.” Users should be aware of the performance and limitations of Ion-Lithium rechargeable batteries; the leading parameters are capacity and number of charge-discharge cycles.
As the battery gets older, the battery takes its time to charge even if there is little to fill. Figure 1 illustrates the charge time of a new Li-ion with a capacity of 100 percent against an aged pack delivering only 82 percent. Both take roughly 150 minutes to charge.
Figure 1: New and aged Li-ion batteries are charged.
Both packs take roughly 150 minutes to charge. The new pack charges to 1,400mAh (100%) while the aged one only goes to 1,150mAh (82%).
Courtesy: Cadex Electronics Inc.
When charging Li-ion, the voltage shoots up similar to lifting a weight with a rubber band. The new pack as demonstrated in Figure 2 is “hungrier” and can take on more “food" before reaching the 4.20V/cell voltage limit compared to the aged Li-ion that hits V Limit in Stage 1 after only about 60 minutes. In terms of a rubber band analogy, the new battery has less slack than to the aged pack and can accept charge longer before going into saturation. Additionally, Full discharge cycles will impact the battery’s number of charging cycles, as well as charge/discharge rates and temperature. Avoid high and low State of Charge (SoC); 30 % to 80 % is appropriate. Maximum voltage should be limited to 4.2 V/cell.
Figure 2: Observing charge times of a new and aged Li-ion in Stage 1.
The new Li-ion takes on full charge for 90 minutes while the aged cell reaches 4.20V/cell in 60 minutes
Courtesy: Cadex Electronics Inc.
Figure 3 demonstrates the different saturation times in Stage 2 as the current trails from the fully regulated current to about 0.05C to trigger ready mode. The trailing on a good battery is short and is prolonged on an aged pack. This explains the longer charge time of an older Li-ion with less capacity. An analogy is a young athlete running a sprint with little or no slow-down towards the end, while the old man gets out of breath and begins walking, prolonging the time to reach the goal.
Figure 3: Observing saturation times of new and aged Li-ion in Stage 2 before switching to ready.
The new cell stays in full-charge longer than the old cell and has a shorter current trail.
Courtesy: Cadex Electronics Inc.
A common aging effect of Li-ion is loss of charge transfer capability. This is caused by the formation of passive materials on the electrodes, which inhibits the flow of free electrons. This reduces the porosity on the electrodes, decreases the surface area, lowers the lower ionic conductivity and raises migration resistance. The aging phenomenon is permanent and cannot be reversed.
The health of a battery is based on these three fundamental attributes:
- Capacity, the ability to store energy. Capacity is the leading health indicator of a battery
- Internal resistance, the ability to deliver current
- Self-discharge, indicator of the mechanical integrity
The charge signature reveals valuable health indicators of Li-ion. A good battery absorbs most of the charge in Stage 1 before reaching 4.20V/cell and the trailing in Stage 2 is short. “Lack of hunger” on a Li-ion can be attributed to a battery being partially charged; exceptionally long trailing times relates to a battery with low capacity, high internal resistance and/or elevated self-discharge.
Algorithms can be developed that compare Stage 1 and Stage 2 based on capacity and state-of-charge. Anomalies, such as low capacity and elevated self-discharge can be identified by setting acceptance thresholds. Cadex is developing chargers with algorithms that will provide diagnostic functions. Such advancement will promote the lone charger into a supervisory position to provide quality assurance in batteries without added logistics.
Best Lithium-Ion Charging Methods FAQ
Q. How should I prepare a new battery?
A. Apply a topping charge before use. No priming needed.
Q. Do I need to apply a full charge?
A. A partial charge better than a full charge as it will extend the total life of the cell.
Q. Can I disrupt the charge cycle?
A. A partial charge causes no harm to the cells.
Q. Should I use up all battery energy before charging?
A. Deep discharge wears the battery down prematurely.
Q. Do I have to worry about the “memory”?
A. Lithium-Ion cells have no memory.
Q. Do I remove the battery when full?
A. Not necessary with the AC/DC charger. The charger will turn off automatically.
Q. How do I store my battery?
A. Store in cool place partially charged.
Q. Does battery heat up on charge?
A. Must stay cool or slightly warm. If the battery gets "hot" during charging, discontinue charging and use of the battery pack.
Q. How do I charge when cold?
A. Battery cells should be above 7°C (45°F) prior to charging. Do not charge below freezing.
Q. Can I charge at hot temperatures?
A. Do not charge above 50°C (122°F).
Q. How often should I charge batteries when not in use?
A. Charge Batteries once a month for 10 minutes when not in use.
How to Prolong Lithium-based Batteries
Discover what causes Li-ion to age and what the battery user can do to prolong its life.
Battery research is focusing on lithium chemistries so much that one could imagine that the battery future lies solely in lithium. There are good reasons to be optimistic as lithium-ion is, in many ways, superior to other chemistries. Applications are growing and are encroaching into markets that previously were solidly held by lead acid, such as standby and load leveling. Many satellites are also powered by Li-ion.
Lithium-ion has not yet fully matured and is still improving. Notable advancements have been made in longevity and safety while the capacity is increasing incrementally. Today, Li-ion meets the expectations of most consumer devices but applications for the EV need further development before this power source will become the accepted norm.
As battery care-giver, you have choices in how to prolong battery life. Each battery system has unique needs in terms of charging speed, depth of discharge, loading and exposure to adverse temperature. Check what causes capacity loss, how does rising internal resistance affect performance, what does elevated self-discharge do and how low can a battery be discharged? You may also be interested in the fundamentals of battery testing.
What Causes Lithium-ion to Age?The lithium-ion battery works on ion movement between the positive and negative electrodes. In theory such a mechanism should work forever, but cycling, elevated temperature and aging decrease the performance over time. Manufacturers take a conservative approach and specify the life of Li-ion in most consumer products as being between 300 and 500 discharge/charge cycles.
Figure 4: Capacity drop as part of cycling. Eleven new Li-ion were tested on a Cadex C7400 battery analyzer. All packs started at a capacity of 88–94% and decreased to 73–84% after 250 full discharge cycles. The 1500mAh pouch packs are used in mobile phones.Courtesy of Cadex
Although a battery should deliver 100 percent capacity during the first year of service, it is common to see lower than specified capacities, and shelf life may contribute to this loss. In addition, manufacturers tend to overrate their batteries, knowing that very few users will do spot-checks and complain if low. Not having to match single cells in mobile phones and tablets, as is required in multi-cell packs, opens the floodgates for a much broader performance acceptance. Cells with lower capacities may slip through cracks without the consumer knowing.
Similar to a mechanical device that wears out faster with heavy use, the depth of discharge (DoD) determines the cycle count of the battery. The smaller the discharge (low DoD), the longer the battery will last. If at all possible, avoid full discharges and charge the battery more often between uses. Partial discharge on Li-ion is fine. There is no memory and the battery does not need periodic full discharge cycles to prolong life. The exception may be a periodic calibration of the fuel gauge on a smart battery or intelligent device. (See BU-603: How to Calibrate a “Smart” Battery)
Note: Tables 1, 2 and 3 indicate general aging trends of common cobalt-based Li-ion batteries on depth-of-discharge, temperature and charge levels, Table 6 further looks at capacity loss when operating within given and discharge bandwidths. The tables do not address ultra-fast charging and high load discharges that will shorten battery life. No all batteries behave the same.
Depth of discharge
~300 / 600
~400 / 900
~600 / 1,500
~1,000 / 3,000
~2,000 / 9,000
~6,000 / 15,000
Table 1: Cycle life as a function of
depth of discharge.* A partial discharge reduces stress and prolongs battery life, so does a partial charge. Elevated temperature and high currents also affect cycle life.
Note: 100% DoD is a full cycle; 10% is very brief. Cycling in mid-state-of-charge would have best longevity.
Lithium-ion suffers from stress when exposed to heat, so does keeping a cell at a high charge voltage. A battery dwelling above 30°C (86°F) is considered elevated temperature and for most Li-ion a voltage above 4.10V/cell is deemed as high voltage. Exposing the battery to high temperature and dwelling in a full state-of-charge for an extended time can be more stressful than cycling. Table 2 demonstrates capacity loss as a function of temperature and SoC.
98% (after 1 year)
94% (after 1 year)
96% (after 1 year)
80% (after 1 year)
85% (after 1 year)
65% (after 1 year)
75% (after 1 year)
Table 2: Estimated recoverable capacity when storing Li-ion for one year at various temperatures. Elevated temperature hastens permanent capacity loss. Not all Li-ion systems behave the same.
Most Li-ions charge to 4.20V/cell, and every reduction in peak charge voltage of 0.10V/cell is said to double the cycle life. For example, a lithium-ion cell charged to 4.20V/cell typically delivers 300–500 cycles. If charged to only 4.10V/cell, the life can be prolonged to 600–1,000 cycles; 4.0V/cell should deliver 1,200–2,000 and 3.90V/cell should provide 2,400–4,000 cycles.
On the negative side, a lower peak charge voltage reduces the capacity the battery stores. As a simple guideline, every 70mV reduction in charge voltage lowers the overall capacity by 10 percent. Applying the peak charge voltage on a subsequent charge will restore the full capacity.
In terms of longevity, the optimal charge voltage is 3.92V/cell. Battery experts believe that this threshold eliminates all voltage-related stresses; going lower may not gain further benefits but induce other symptoms. (See BU-808b: What causes Li-ion to die?) Table 3 summarizes the capacity as a function of charge levels. (All values are estimated; Energy Cells with higher voltage thresholds may deviate.)
Table 3: Discharge cycles and capacity as a function of charge voltage limit. Every 0.10V drop below 4.20V/cell doubles the cycle but holds less capacity. Raising the voltage above 4.20V/cell would shorten the life. The readings reflect regular Li-ion charging to 4.20V/cell.Guideline: Every 70mV drop in charge voltage lowers the usable capacity by about 10%.
Note: Partial charging negates the benefit of Li-ion in terms of high specific energy.
Experiment: Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, reports that using a reduced charge level of 50% SOC increases the lifetime expectancy of the vehicle Li-ion battery by 44–130%.
Most chargers for mobile phones, laptops, tablets and digital cameras charge Li-ion to 4.20V/cell. This allows maximum capacity, because the consumer wants nothing less than optimal runtime. Industry, on the other hand, is more concerned about longevity and may choose lower voltage thresholds. Satellites and electric vehicles are such examples.
For safety reasons, many lithium-ions cannot exceed 4.20V/cell. (Some NMC are the exception.) While a higher voltage boosts capacity, exceeding the voltage shortens service life and compromises safety. Figure 5 demonstrates cycle count as a function of charge voltage. At 4.35V, the cycle count of a regular Li-ion is cut in half.
Figure 5: Effects on cycle life at elevated charge voltages. Higher charge voltages boost capacity but lowers cycle life and compromises safety.Source: Choi et al. (2002)
Besides selecting the best-suited voltage thresholds for a given application, a regular Li-ion should not remain at the high-voltage ceiling of 4.20V/cell for an extended time. The Li-ion charger turns off the charge current and the battery voltage reverts to a more natural level. This is like relaxing the muscles after a strenuous exercise. (See BU-409: Charging Lithium-ion)Figure 6 illustrates dynamic stress tests (DST) reflecting capacity loss when cycling Li-ion at various charge and discharge bandwidths. The largest capacity loss occurs when discharging a fully charged Li-ion to 25 percent SoC (black); the loss would be higher if fully discharged. Cycling between 85 and 25 percent (green) provides a longer service life than charging to 100 percent and discharging to 50 percent (dark blue). The smallest capacity loss is attained by charging Li-ion to 75 percent and discharging to 65 percent. This, however, does not fully utilize the battery. High voltages and exposure to elevated temperature is said to degrade the battery quicker than cycling under normal condition. (Nissan Leaf case)
Figure 6: Capacity loss as a function of charge and discharge bandwidth.*
Courtesy: ResearchGate – Modeling of Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation for Cell Life Assessment.
* Discrepancies exist between Table 2 and Figure 6 on cycle count. No clear explanations are available other than assuming differences in battery quality and test methods. Variances between low-cost consumer and durable industrial grades may also play a role. Capacity retention will decline more rapidly at elevated temperatures than at 20ºC.
Figure 7 extrapolates the data from Figure 6 to expand the predicted cycle life of Li-ion by using an extrapolation program that assumes linear decay of battery capacity with progressive cycling. If this were true, then a Li-ion battery cycled within 75%–25% SoC (blue) would fade to 74% capacity after 14,000 cycles. If this battery were charged to 85% with same depth-of-discharge (green), the capacity would drop to 64% at 14,000 cycles, and with a 100% charge with same DoD (black), the capacity would drop to 48%. For unknown reasons, real-life expectancy tends to be lower than in simulated modeling. (See BU-208: Cycling Performance)
Only a full cycle provides the specified energy of a battery. With a modern Energy Cell, this is 250Wh/kg, but the cycle life will be compromised. All being linear, the life-prolonging mid-range of 85-25 percent reduces the energy to 60 percent and this equates to moderating the specific energy density from 250Wh/kg to 150Wh/kg. Mobile phones are consumer goods that utilize the full energy of a battery. Industrial devices, such as the EV, typically limit the charge to 85% and discharge to 25% to prolong battery life. (See Why Mobile Phone Batteries do not last as long as an EV Battery)
Figure 7: Predictive modeling of battery life by extrapolation.
Li-ion batteries are charged to three different SoC levels and the cycle life modelled. Limiting the charge range prolongs battery life but decreases energy delivered. This reflects in increased weight and higher initial cost.
With permission to use. Interpolation/extrapolation by OriginLab.
Battery manufacturers often specify the cycle life of a battery with an 80 DoD. This is practical because batteries should retain some reserve before charge under normal use. (See BU-501: Basics about Discharging, “What Constitutes a Discharge Cycle”) The cycle count on DST (dynamic stress test) differs with battery type, charge time, loading protocol and operating temperature. Lab tests often get numbers that are not attainable in the field.
What Can the User Do?
Environmental conditions, not cycling alone, govern the longevity of lithium-ion batteries. The worst situation is keeping a fully charged battery at elevated temperatures. Battery packs do not die suddenly, but the runtime gradually shortens as the capacity fades.
Lower charge voltages prolong battery life and electric vehicles and satellites take advantage of this. Similar provisions could also be made for consumer devices, but these are seldom offered; planned obsolescence takes care of this.
A laptop battery could be prolonged by lowering the charge voltage when connected to the AC grid. To make this feature user-friendly, a device should feature a “Long Life” mode that keeps the battery at 4.05V/cell and offers a SoC of about 80 percent. One hour before traveling, the user requests the “Full Capacity” mode to bring the charge to 4.20V/cell.
The question is asked, “Should I disconnect my laptop from the power grid when not in use?” Under normal circumstances this should not be necessary because charging stops when the Li-ion battery is full. A topping charge is only applied when the battery voltage drops to a certain level. Most users do not remove the AC power, and this practice is safe.
Modern laptops run cooler than older models and reported fires are fewer. Always keep the airflow unobstructed when running electric devices with air-cooling on a bed or pillow. A cool laptop extends battery life and safeguards the internal components. Energy Cells, which most consumer products have, should be charged at 1C or less. Avoid so-called ultra-fast chargers that claim to fully charge Li-ion in less than one hour.